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Geology of National Parks, 3D and Photographic Tours

Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area

Selected References

Allen, J. E., Burns, M., and Sargent, S. C., 1986, Cataclysms on the Columbia River: - A Layman's Guide To the Features Produced By the Catastrophic Bretz Floods In the Pacific Northwest: Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., Scenic Trips To the Northwest's Geologic Past no 2., 213 p.

Baker, V. R., R. Greeley, P. D. Komar, D. A. Swanson, and Waitt, R. B., 1987, "The Columbia and Snake River Plains", in Graf, W. L., editor, Geomorphic Systems of North America, Geological Society of America, The Geology of North America, Centennial Special Volume 2, p. 403-468.

Beeson, M. H., 1987, "Columbia River Gorge: The Geologic Evolution of the Columbia River in Northwestern Oregon and Southwestern Washington," in Hill, M. L., editor, Centennial Field Guide Volume 1, Cordilleran Section of the Geological Society of America: , p. 321-326.

Bjornstad, B., 2006, On the Trail of the Ice Age Floods, A Geological Field Guide to the Mid-Columbia Basin, Washington: Keokee Guide Book, 320 p.

Bjornstad, B., 2008, Technical bibliography: Scientific Papers and Books About the Ice Age Floods - Listed Alphabetically by Author: Ice Age Floods Institute website. Available on-line at:; or - Listed Chronologically. Available on-line at:

Crandell, D. R., 1980, Recent eruptive history of Mount Hood, Oregon, and potential hazards from future eruptions: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1492, 81 p.

Hadlow, R. W., 1995, Historic American Engineering Record, Multnomah Falls Footbredge (Benson Footbridge), Troutdale vicinity, Multnomah County, Oregon.: National Park Service, Historic American Engineering Record HARE no. OR-36-I, 19 p. Available on-line at:

Jenkinson, C., Ambrose-Tubbs, S., and Mussulman, J., editors, 2009, Beacon Rock (Discovering Lewis & Clark): Washburn, North Dakota: The Lewis and Clark Fort Mandan Foundation. Website available on-line at:

Lang, B., [2010], Columbia River: Portland, Oregon: Portland State University, Center For Columbia River History website. Available on-line at:

Meinig, D. W., 1968, The Great Columbia Plain: A Historical Geography, 1805-1910: Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press, 576 p.

Mueller, M. and Mueller, T., 1997, Fire, Faults, & Floods: A Road & Trail Guide Exploring the Origins of the Columbia River Basin (Northwest Naturalist Book): Moscow, Idaho: University of Idaho Press.

Ice Age Floods Institute, 2008, The Ice Age Floods: Richland, Washington: Ice Age Flood Institute website. Available on-line at:

Lang, B., [2010], Columbia River: Portland, Oregon: Portland State University, Center For Columbia River History website. Available on-line at:

Moulton, G., editor, 2005, The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition: University of Nebraska Press/ University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries-Electronic Text Center website. Available on-line at:

Norman, D. K. and Roloff, J. M., 2004, A Self-Guided Tour of the Geology of the Columbia River Gorge - Portland Airport to Skamania Lodge, Stevenson Lodge, Washington: Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Open File Report 2004-7, 9 p. Available on-line at:

Sherrod, D. R., 1990, Hood, Oregon: in Volcanoes of North America, United States and Canada: Wood, C. A., and Kienle, J., editors, Cambridge University Press, p. 173-175.

USGS, 2001, The Geologic History of the Columbia River Gorge: U.S. Geological Survey/Cascades Volcano Observatory, CVO website:Available on-line at:

USGS, 2004, The Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark: October 1805 to June 1806: U.S. Geological Survey, Cascades Volcano Observatory website. Available on-line at:

USGS, 2009, Long Narrows and Short Narrows: Lewis & Clark's Columbia River, 200 Years Late: The Columbia River, A Photographic Journey (website):

US Army Corps of Engineers, [2010], The Dalles Lock and Dam, Lake Celilo. US Army Corps of Engineers website. Available on-line at:

USFS, 2007, Waterfalls: U.S. Forest Service, Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area, website. Available on-line at: http://www.fs.feditorus/r6/columbia/recreation/waterfalls.shtml.

USFS, 2009, Geography and History (Frequently Asked Questions: Mount Hood National Forest website. Available on-line at: http://www.fs.feditorus/r6/mthood/faq/.

USGS, 2009, Columbia River Basalt Stratigraphy in the Pacific Northwest: U.S. Geological Survey, Oregon Water Science Center (in cooperation with the Oregon Water Resources Department) website. Available on-line at:

Waitt, R. B., and D.A. Swanson, 1987, Geomorphic Evolution of the Columbia Plain and River, in Graf, W .L., editor, Geomorphic Systems of North America, Geological Society of America Centennial Special Volume 2, p. 403-416.

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